Interweaving Conference 2017





Oral Presentations: Pedagogy, Learning and Curriculum

Title: Are you for real? Investigating Authenticity in Community-Based Youth Work Practice (paper01-1)

Authors: Alan Mackie, Dr Ian Fyfe

Keywords: Pedagogy, Authenticity, Education, Youth, Identity

Abstract: Over the past few years there has been a volume of work exploring the notion of ‘authenticity’ in formal schooling with the role and practice of the teacher placed under critical scrutiny. It is our contention that the concept of authenticity is a useful tool to explore the identity, practice and ethics of youth work in the current context. Building effective and meaningful relationships is seen as central to youth work practice. The interaction between adult practitioners and young people is commonly mediated by levels of trust, respect, sincerity and above all - authenticity. The youth work relationship is said to be built on notions of an informal learning partnership between the adult practitioner and participating young people. Such a partnership is often marked by an underlying commitment to enabling young people to take more control of their lives through learning critically about the challenges they face. Through a comprehensive literature review we have developed a four dimensional theory of authenticity for youth work practice. We interviewed seven practitioners about the work they currently undertake with young people and analysed their responses through our model – asking the question, ‘to what extent are these practitioners encouraged to be/able to be authentic?’

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Title: Education and Evolution Darwinian educational theory, or, the pedagogy of salvation (paper01-2)

Author: Aline Nardo

Keywords: Darwinian Pedagogy, Critical Theory, Progressivism

Abstract: Pedagogy looks back on an ambivalent tradition of Darwinist ideas entering the discourse. The rise of developmental psychology, the popularity of utopian dreams of the enhancement of human kind through education on progressive education movements around the globe in the 20th Century, or the impact of Social Darwinism, are only some key points which illustrate the deep and complex historical relationship of education and Darwinism.
That problematic forms of Darwinian educational theory, however, are not merely a historical issue can be observed recently, for example, in Germany: Under the umbrella term of ‘Evolutionary Pedagogy’, a group of educational theorists developed a new form of evolutionary theorising, in which they not only argued for the complete reform of all educational theory going back to Plato (see Treml 2004), but also for the reinterpretation of selective schools as instruments of natural selection, dividing students based on ability (see Scheunpug, 2001). 'Evolutionary Pedagogy' is an example of the danger of an uncritical mode of evolutionary reasoning that analogises and popularises very basic evolutionary concepts. Research in education has not yet developed a mode of discussing the relationship between evolution and education in a critically informed manner. However, this lack of discussion concerns not only educational theories that draw explicitly from the theory of evolution; likewise, the more implicit Darwinist influence on ‘educational classics’ such as Piaget, Montessori or Dewey has been neglected in educational reflection so far. This categorical omission of a framework that, as I want to argue, has profoundly influenced the development of modern education and has fostered a problematic progressivism with severe normative issues in pedagogy.
In my talk I will give a historical overview over this widely overlooked tradition of pedagogic thought and discuss its philosophical implications critically.

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Title: Examining the changing roles and working relationships of professionals in Local Authority settings within Scotland’s Early Learning and Childcare Sector (paper01-3)

Author: Liz Latto

Key words: early years; professional relationships; status, roles and relationships; aspects of ethnography and auto-ethnography

Abstract: This paper sets out the proposed methodology for my PhD study into how the roles of teachers and early years practitioners are evolving throughout this period of change within Scottish Early Learning and Childcare (ELC). Within Scotland’s ELC sector staff are currently drawn from two distinct backgrounds: teaching and early years practitioners and it has long been argued that the disparity in qualifications, wages and terms & conditions of employment has resulted in a separation of roles within ELC. This paper will explore how tensions resulting from this historical disparity manifest themselves within different contexts and what impact different managerial structures have on these, taking into account recent and proposed changes within Scottish ELC. My research will explore the different training and qualifications of both teachers and early years practitioners, investigating how these impact on cultures, philosophies, perceptions and practice. This research will be a multiple case study, comprising of three ELC settings, using aspects of ethnography to collect data. Adopting aspects of auto-ethnography during data analysis will allow me to reflect critically upon my own practice and professional relationships, turning a theoretical lens on my own practice and underlying assumptions. This will create a space to actively engage with the theoretical underpinnings of this study, thereby addressing the questions of culture within an ethnographic study. This study will therefore focus on four key areas: the status, roles and relationships within a multi-professional team; differences in training and perceptions within the team; effect of different management structures and questions of recruitment and retention of multi-professional teams within ELC settings.

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Title: Outdoor, Environmental, and Sustainability Education within UK Jewish Schools: An Exploratory Study of Eco-Jewish Education (paper01-4)

Author: Brianna Sommer

Keywords: environmental education, religious education, eco-Jewish education

Abstract: This research explored if and how the sole Jewish school in Scotland, along with Jewish Schools throughout the UK, incorporate outdoor, environmental, and sustainability education (OESE). OESE is simply education that aids us on our journey towards sustainability where learners develop critical thinking skills necessary to evaluate, critique, and contest themselves and others (whether that be educators, religious leaders, politicians, or other influential, authoritative figures) (Piaget, 2002). The research used a mixed methods, equal weight approach and framework analysis to better understand the integration, or absence, of Eco-Jewish education (EJE) in UK Jewish Schools (UKJS) from the perspective of both the educators and the learners. EJE is the obligation to not only educate, learn, and think rigorously about the environment, but also the responsibility to invoke vigorous activism and awaken commitment, caution, and care to a just and sustainable future. Findings suggest that the frequency, duration, and quality of pupils’ OESE experiences and the level of EJE in UKJS varies depending on government education policies, the curriculum’s objectives and expected outcomes, as well as school administrators’ and educators’ preparedness and determination to incorporate OESE into the whole school curriculum, as well as the ‘Jewish’ curriculum.

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Title: An Integration of Language and Literacy Education in the EFL Classroom (paper01-5)

Author: Jing Xu

Keywords: L2 teacher education, L2 teaching, L2 literacy development

Abstract: There has been a shift in the conceptualization of reading from conditioned behaviour to a psycholinguistic process and then on to a sociocultural practice. In the EFL context, reading as cognitive and linguistic skills are often acquired on the basis of an autonomous model. While a large proportion of work focuses on the practices of decoding and meaning-making in the situated context, this project argues for an ideological model which involves critical practices of reading. The overall aim of this study is to explore transformative teaching practices of L2 reading in relation to L2 teaching and literacy development, beginning with CPD to develop teacher knowledge by allowing teachers to reflect on their understandings of L2 reading and to further explore their reading practices when a critical approach to reading is implemented in EFL classes. Reflective journals, interviews and classroom observations are used to collect data which will be analysed through a qualitative thematic analysis.

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Title: Inarticulate? Who? Me? An interactive presentation on interviewing those with few words (paper01-6)

Author: Diana Murdoch

Keywords: interviews, additional needs, phenomenology, voice

Abstract: Interviewing in qualitative research is often conducted via the medium of the spoken word, which relies, to a certain extent, on a mutual, if tacit, understanding of the articulation and meanings of the words.
This ten-minute interactive session calls into question some of the assumptions we, as researchers, may make about the ability of those with few words to ‘voice’ their views, needs and wishes. In many cases, this has resulted in a lack of knowledge about the lived experience of those whose words we seldom hear.
This session is based on my doctoral research on the lived experience of inclusive education, of young people, their parents and their teachers, in a mainstream Scottish secondary school, which has been conducted using phenomenology as methodology and method.

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Title: The Impact of Cultural Ecosystem Services in Community Gardens on Community Development (paper01-7)

Author: Ethan Lewis

Keywords: community gardens, community development, ecosystem services

Abstract: In recent years, there has been a resurgence and increased interest in gardening again. Many attribute this resurgence to austerity and neoliberal policies that many citizens felt left them behind (Crossan, Cumbers, McMaster, & Shaw, 2016; Pudup, 2008; Thompson, 2015; Witheridge & Morris, 2016). This comeback has brought about more academic research on community gardens. The current research is all human-centered, focusing on human interactions. In addition, research that uses ecosystem services as an evaluation tool largely only capture big picture benefits of the gardens and through quantitative methods. With increasing demands for funding, new and creative ways of recording the stories taking place in community gardens is needed. As community gardens gain in popularity many are being used to revitalize neighborhoods. The aim of my doctoral research will be to discover what ‘intangible’ benefits the participants receive from the community gardens and how these services might aid in building community. Using the language of cultural ecosystem services, I aim to tell the untold stories happening in community gardens. This talk will follow my early research stage musings, theoretical wanderings and dead ends, among others adventures and my current line of pursuit.

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Title: Leadership towards sustainability – a sense of direction informed by expert interviews (paper01-8)

Author: Jule Hildmann

Keywords: leadership, sustainability, values

Abstract: Introduction: Climate change and social crises impact on all of our lives and the entire planet. The values, attitudes and behaviours that make our existence and actions more sustainable, need to be adopted more widely by society. This requires effective leadership. This small scale project collected expert perspectives on the main issues and challenges around leadership and sustainability in Scotland. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six experts in leadership positions of institutions in the context of sustainability. These represented academia, third sector, politics, and public services. The interviews were transcribed and analysed for themes that could inform further research. Results: The experts spoke from different professional perspectives, which generated a rich overall picture. As key theme around leadership in sustainability emerged the question of the underlying values, and how they can be passed on through the leaders. One of the main challenges that were mentioned is the institutional support for leaders. Other themes were cultural differences and gender aspects.
Discussion: Further research is needed and in preparation to investigate the challenges in Scotland and other European countries, and how leadership in sustainability can be supported in tangible ways.

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Title: Conducting Research with looked after children: opportunities and constraints (paper01-9)

Author: Andy Hancock

Keywords: looked after children, reading, agency

Abstract: The low educational achievement of looked after children is well documented in the United Kingdom (UK) and internationally. However, official statistics do not reveal the nuances of individual children’s lived experiences nor children’s agency. This presentation gives weight to children’s perspectives and reports on the views of looked after children (aged 7-10) in Scotland during The Letterbox Club project. It specifically investigates children’s perspectives of reading practices in the home and their responses to books delivered to them over a six-month period. Data was gathered from three distinct but inter-related phases of the research (1) literacy pro􀂡les completed by the children in collaboration with their carer(s) (2) children’s comments on evaluation sheets contained in each of the six parcels (3) individual conversations with children at the end of the project. The findings reveal the heterogeneous nature of looked after children with multifarious reading proficiencies and reading habits and routines. The children made choices about where and when they read and with whom, expressing opinions about books and authors and using the contents of the parcels to take action and gain greater ownership over their own learning. Finally, the contested nature of children’s agency is discussed and the implications for future research involving looked after children.

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Oral Presentations: Equality, Social Justice and Inclusion

Title: Religious and Industrial Education in the nineteenth-century Magdalene Asylums in Scotland (paper02-1)

Author: Jo Thor

Keywords: Magdalene, education, religion, social work

Abstract: My paper will explore the Magdalene Asylums' education as a tool for reforming the inmates into women rejecting the managers' ideals of femininity and Christian virtue in 19th-century Scotland. The Magdalene Asylums were penitentiaries for 'fallen' women. A high percentage of them, but not all, had been involved in sex trade in some form. The reports of these institutions describe their aims and quote selected letters of former inmates, their parents and new employers. They give us an insight into how these Christian philanthropists imagined and applied educational programme in social work among this group of women and girls. The two main areas of the asylums' education were the religious teachings and instructions in a range of skills necessary for becoming a servant or a factory worker. Those who could not read and write received basic literacy lessons. Magdalene Asylums in 19th-century Scotland are a rich study case where education had a very narrow meaning and served a precisely defined purpose. It provided a broad spectrum of skills, although never at a comprehensive level. My paper will explore the managers' intentions and social and educational ideals by analysing the language they used to talk about 'successfully reformed' women.

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Title: The take-up of student loans by low-income young students in Scotland (paper02-2)

Author: Lucy Blackburn

Keywords: students borrowing behaviour

Abstract: Introduction: In 2013, up-front financial help with living costs for full-time students at low- incomes in Scotland increased, but became more heavily based on student loan. The government appeared to believe that students were largely neutral between grant and loan. In practice however around one-quarter of young students eligible for a means-tested grant do not take out a loan, and receive only the new reduced rate of grant. The research explored which low-income students were most likely not to borrow. Method: I used aggregate administrative data covering the whole population of students taking Young Students Bursary in 2014-15 to compare the likelihood of borrowing between different groups of students, using odds ratios. Results: The largest difference in likelihood of borrowing was between students attending a university and those attending a college: non-borrowers had almost twice the odds of being enrolled at college as at university. Discussion: This is the first analysis of borrowing behaviour at low-incomes using data for the whole population. As a purely quantitative study it could not draw conclusions about causal relationships. However, the evidence that borrowing behaviour varies among different low-income groups, and particularly that college students are more unlikely to borrow, has immediate relevance for the Scottish Government's current review of student support.

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Title: Creativity within Scottish primary education: exploring how children perceive, perform and embody creativity (paper02-3)

Author: Krystallia Kryitsi

Keywords: creativity, primary education, children's participation

Abstract: Creativity has been explored through a plethora of definitions over the years. Most researchers perceive creativity as an individual trait and dominant definitions of creativity are based on psychological frameworks that mainly focus on individual creativity (NACCCE, 1999; Craft, 2005). However, there is an increasing interest in exploring children’s collaborative creativity (Chappell, 2007; Craft et al, 2014; Davis, 2011). Despite that, there are still many unanswered questions regarding children’s perspectives on creativity and on how creativity can be fostered in schools through children’s individual or collaborative work. This paper presents children’s perspectives on creativity and draws particular attention to how children’s differences (gender, race, age, disability) influence the way children perform and embody creativity. The paper draws on findings of an ethnographic research (the ethnography involved participant observation and semi-structured interviews with 25 children and 2 teachers) that was conducted in one Scottish primary school classroom. The findings of this study strongly indicate that children perceive creativity not only as an individual characteristic, but also as a process that is performed through collaboration and, also, put forward cultural barriers to the cultivation of creativity that are linked to the way power operates through children’s bodies and embodied identities.

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Title: Aspirations to Achieve: An exploration of socio-economic position, educational attitudes and GCSE attainment for synthetic cohorts in the British Household Panel Survey (paper02-4)

Author: Sarah Stopforth

Keywords: Socio-economic background, GCSE attainment, aspirations, BHPS

Abstract: There is a long-standing relationship between a pupil’s socio-economic background and their educational outcomes. In general, pupils from more advantaged social backgrounds obtain more and higher-level qualifications than their less advantaged peers. Until 2015 with the raising of the participation age, General Certification of Secondary Education qualifications (GCSEs) were the examinations taken at the end of compulsory schooling for all English pupils. GCSEs are sociologically important because they are the first branching point in a young person’s educational trajectory. GCSEs are further sociologically important because inequalities at later stages in a pupil’s educational career can be explained by inequalities established at earlier stages. In this paper, I utilise pooled cross-sectional analyses of data from the British Household Panel Survey. I construct a series of synthetic cohorts (based on school years) to undertake a detailed analysis of the relationship between socio-economic position and GCSE attainment. Utilising the household panel design, I explore a series of measures relating to both parents, and to the composition of the household in which the young person grew up. I also investigate a set of variables associated with the young person’s attitudes and aspirations towards their education before they sat their GCSEs.

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Title: What Matters for Improving Primary School Mathematics Education in St. Lucia? (paper02-5)

Author: Takuya Namajiri

Keywords: Quality of Education; Mathematics Education; Primary Education; Multilevel Models; St. Lucia

Abstract: Growing evidence indicates that many developing countries including Saint (St.) Lucia need to improve the quality of education and students’ academic performance, especially in mathematics. The results from national assessment surveys in St. Lucia suggest that many students had not mastered the basic skills in early mathematics which they should have. The current study aims not only to identify factors associated with low mathematics achievement of students in primary schools, but also to contribute a deeper theoretical understanding of the development of teacher quality measurements in St. Lucia. The study consists of two parts. Firstly, semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven high stakeholders to elicit their perceptions about the factors influencing pupils’ mathematics performance. Secondly, the survey data was collected from 1790 Grade 4 pupils, 89 classroom teachers and 60 principals. All the data was subsequently merged with the results of the national achievement to determine factors affecting student’s performance on number concepts and computation in the national achievement test in 2016. Multilevel analysis was applied to the data nested at three levels: student, classroom (teacher) and school. Initial results from the analysis will be presented.

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Title: The Significance of Parental Involvement to Promote the Integration of Refugees and Migrants in Primary Schools (paper02-6)

Author: Dana Dabbous

Keywords: parental involvement, primary education, refugees, migrants

Abstract: This paper discusses the aspect of parental involvement emerging from the initial findings of a research project conducted in Glasgow exploring how Primary school teachers’ construct their pedagogies to teach for refugees and migrants in their classrooms. The importance of parental involvement to promote integration of refugee and migrant students in schools proved to be a main aspect of concern for primary teachers across the schools in this study. Approximately twelve teachers were interviewed across four primary schools in Glasgow. Interview questions ranged from understanding teachers’ practices, knowledge and awareness of integrative practices for refugees and migrants. Thematic analysis of the twelve interviews was the main method of data analysis. Teachers illustrated a need for greater parental involvement and more guidance and criteria that could aid them in the classroom. Additionally, the majority of teachers would utilise students’ cultural backgrounds and life experiences to deliver instruction to the entire classroom. However, teachers’ voiced they did not deliberately differentiate between their students. Overall, teachers’ believed there was a positive aspect of having refugees and migrants in their classrooms because it promoted diversity across the school.

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Title: Is there a space for Islamic feminism or any type of feminisms regarding the practices of women adult educators in Iran? (paper02-7)

Author: Hoda Mobasseri

Keywords: adult education, Islamic feminism, de-colonial feminism, Black feminism

Abstract: Radical adult education has been concerned with the power dynamics and transformations of people’s realities especially the disadvantaged sections of the society. Adult education spaces are one of the major arenas that can facilitate empowerment for women. However, adult education has been traditionally involved with class issues rather than other sources of disenfranchisement. Through making a bricolage of Islamic feminist, de-colonial feminist and Black feminist contributions we may be able to expand the framework for action as far as adult education is concerned. Islamic feminism may provide the ground for engagement with gender issues within the context of Islamic societies like Iran. It can also become an informant theory for analysing Muslim women’s representation and recognition within the Iranian socio-political atmosphere. Through claiming authority for reinterpretation of the sacred texts of Islam, Islamic feminism breaks the boundaries of traditional male religious scholars. It let gender sensitive matters to gain legitimacy and new knowledges to be produced. Parallel to Islamic feminism de-colonial feminism assist us to move away from homogenisation of Muslim women’s identities and create spaces for solidarities based on common interests. This pedagogical strategy may help Muslim women build alliances with feminists from other parts of the world. In theorising experiences of women de-colonial feminists such as Mohanty suggest focusing on history, collective memory and social and structural inequalities (1994). Black feminists such as Hill Colins, hooks and Davis have emphasised on the racial aspects of educational interventions. “progressive educators” from hooks view are those who confront the hegemony of “imperialist white-supremacist capitalist patriarchal” agenda being distributed through mass media (2003:8). The reproduction of hegemonic identities of Muslim women is a matter of concern here as religious fundamentalism and conservative nationalism have been contributing in marginalising Black and Minority Ethnic women. This paper would consist of an analysis of Iran as a society with specific conjurations of adult education for women. I intend to answer if there are spaces for feminism as far as the practices of adult educators is concerned. I have interviewed 19 adult education workers in Iran. My focus has been on the gendered aspects of adult education practices in Iran and the ways in which it is framed in order to answer the needs of women in Iran.

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Title: Does civil society require an institution that provides education, including two-way learning to be able to develop? A case study: the civil society United Nations House Scotland (paper02-8)

Author: Dorothea Vincent

Keywords: civil society, institution, education, develop, United Nations

Abstract: Currently, Edinburgh hosts the only known civil society United Nations House in the world. This concept is created to provide a platform for individuals and organisations in civil society to be able to learn how they can collaborate their contributions to the UN goals and values and to have their voice heard so the ‘top’ can learn about societies interests and needs. This leads to the research question of: “Does civil society require an institution that provides education, including two-way learning, to be able to develop? A case study: the civil society United Nations House Scotland”. The contribution to the existing body of knowledge is to develop the theoretical concept of whether civil society requires a new form of educational institution to develop.

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Oral Presentations: Sport, Physical Education & Health Science

Title: Reliability of five repetition maximum unilateral and bilateral lower strength in adolescent rugby players. (paper06-1)

Author: Cam Zhao

Keywords: Leg press, Squat, Usefulness

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability and usefulness of 5 RM unilateral and bilateral leg press and squat in adolescent rugby players. Fifteen adolescent male rugby players agreed to participate in the study. After two familiarisation sessions, participants performed 5 RM single leg press tests (SLP), 5 RM leg press tests (LP), 5 RM single leg squat tests (SLSQ) and 5 RM squat tests (SQ) in the following 4 weeks with each test performed twice within a week with 48 hours rest between initial test and retest. Results showed no significant difference between initial tests and retest in all tests. Intra-class correlation value (ICC) (0.97-0.98) was high and coefficient of variation was low (≤0.05) in all tests. The sensitivity (usefulness) of the test was assessed by comparing typical error (TE) and the smallest worthwhile change (SWC) values. All tests showed a good or acceptable usefulness. In conclusion, 5 RM SLP, 5 RM LP, 5 RM SLSQ and 5 RM SQ are reliable and useful in assessing lower body unilateral and bilateral strength for adolescent rugby players.

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Title: Intercultural learning on the high seas? Preliminary thoughts and findings (paper06-2)

Author: Yujun Xu

Keywords: Intercultural Learning, Sail Training, High Seas, Youth

Abstract: The international tall ship sail training experience has potential to act as an inter cultural learning (ICL) opportunity given the multi-national community on board yet to date there is no research on ICL in this context. This study aims to explore “How, if any, the intercultural learning outcome is perceived during and 6 months after the intercultural sail training voyage?” An ethnography study and a follow-up study have been conducted to collect the evidence. Preliminary findings indicate that intercultural learning tends to be a dynamic process which changes the outcome when the context and space changes. Firstly, the context of sailing at sea creates a semi-total institute structure for the learners because of the confined space of freedom and the unavailability of connecting with the outside world. Secondly, the context of the intercultural learning experience at sea is even more different from the participants’ normal life experience. The fact of social media detox aboard, for instance, facilitated the young people’s intercultural learning by naturally forcing them to interact with each other. Thirdly, the participants unconsciously expressed contradictory opinions and comments in terms of culture and their intercultural learning experience.

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Title: The psychosocial effects of RaceRunning for children with cerebral palsy (CP). (paper06-3)

Author: Hamish Johnson

Keywords: Physical activity, disability sport, quality of life

Abstract: Introduction - For children with CP, physical activity is seen as necessary for physical, psychological, health & social development. Restrictions to participation can be detrimental to their development. Physical activity has often been avoided by children with CP because of concerns over the negative effect such effort can have, but that perspective has now changed with short- and long-term benefits well documented.
RaceRunning, an emerging disability sport, is popular to individuals with CP and similar conditions, and provides an opportunity to participate in a new sporting /social environment. With a low number of studies involving RaceRunning, research will help to increase the understanding of potential benefits. In turn, this enhances awareness to families, carers, health professionals and policy makers, about the importance of developing RaceRunning on all levels.
Methods - Twenty novice subjects, age 6 to 16 years, will complete a 10-week RaceRunning intervention. Psychosocial measures will be collected pre- and post-intervention to investigate the effects of RaceRunning, with interviews held post-intervention for a more in-depth look.
Results/Discussion - Results from this study could provide evidence about beneficial effects of RaceRunning for children with CP. On an international level, the results can contribute to the case for inclusion for RaceRuning as a Paralympic event.

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Title: Curricular Sport-for-Development Programmes and Positive Youth Development; Perspectives in a Scottish context (paper06-4)

Author: Jennifer Treacy

Keywords: Mixed Methods Design, Sport-for-Development, Sports Programmes, Positive Youth Development, Health and Well-Being

Abstract: This paper explores pupil experiences of a curricular sports programme offered in a Scottish secondary school. Participation in these types of sports programmes is a promising avenue to foster what is known as Positive Youth Development (PYD). As greater responsibility is placed within the Curriculum for Excellence (CfE) to enhance aspects commonly associated with PYD such as social and emotional well-being, it is essential to understand how this school provision may enhance these characteristics. The majority of research involving sport and youth development is cross-sectional and quantitative in nature, with very few studies drawing on qualitative evidence. In addition, research involving curricular sports programmes, and their ability to enhance aspects of PYD, is limited. This research employed a sequential multi-phase mixed methods design consisting of three phases. This paper will focus on the third phase of the data collection that utilised semi-structured interviews with those who participated in the programme as well as those who did not. This phase was explanatory in nature seeking to provide further explanation to the findings from the previous two phases. This research draws on aspects of the Applied Sport Programming Model (Fraser-Thomas, Côté & Deakin, 2005) and suggests an additional consideration of programme ‘selection’. Developmentally, this selection process appeared to be an important self-validating factor for increases in pupils’ confidence in their athletic ability. This research adds to the continuing conversation regarding the possible developmental nature of sport programmes and the continued search for avenues to enhance psychosocial development in the school context.

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Oral Presentations: Digital Education

Title: Playful learning: human kinds and collaborative communities in World of Warcraft (or ‘How I became a hunter’) (paper07-1)

Author: Clara O'Shea

Keywords: Ian Hacking, games-based learning, human kinds, identity, community

Abstract: In this presentation, I will explore Ian Hacking’s concept of human kinds in relation to learning and collaborative communities through the lens of a massively multiplayer roleplaying game. I will first lay out Hacking’s work on human kinds, dynamic nominalism and the looping effect and then explore the relationship between learning and becoming a kind through games and digital education. I will use as a lens my own experiences taking on the role of a marksman hunter in the fantasy virtual world created within the game World of Warcraft. I will touch on what makes a kind, what factors and processes are involved in developing as a kind, how learning to become a kind is scaffolded and what role other players have in that process of ‘becoming’. I will highlight some implications of becoming in this way for thinking about identity, assessment and collaborative work in digital education. I will finish by looking at what Hacking’s theory leaves unexplored – the materials and technologies that make up digital games and online learning – and suggest ways his theory might be opened up to account for the material.

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Title: The problem of engagement: competing cultural narratives in gaming and educational environments. (paper07-2)

Author: Noreen Dunnett

Keywords: Engagement cultural narrative learning identity

Abstract: Almost half of all pupils in English secondary schools have become disengaged from school by the time they sit their GCSEs (Wybron and Paget, 2016). Many reasons have been cited, with assessment practices being seen as the most compelling factor (Harlen and Deakin Crick, 2002). This culture of testing may also be competing with a culture of digital learning practices such as those used in digital gaming, which many schools are failing to address it in the way they teach (Green, 2007; Elliott, 1998). Literature on engagement and motivation in learning focuses on formal rather than informal learning, regarding motivation either as an individual psychological issue or the result of sociological phenomenon such as class, race or gender. My research draws on a body of literature in the end of sociocultural and situative approaches to motivation in social contexts (Nolen and Ward, 2008; Hickey and Granade, 2004; Pressick-Kilborn & Walker, 2002); to learner identity (Sjöblom & Aronsson, 2012; Hammick, 2008) and to cultural narrative (Hazel, 2008; Hammick, 2008). My position is that disengagement and lack of motivation for formal learning may not be the result of individual psychological traits nor purely a result of membership of a particular social group, but rather a clash between the cultural narratives of learning which exist within the social contexts of school and gaming, and within which individual learners create their personal learning identities. Through narrative ethnography I am attempting to explore the effect of cultural narratives on individual learner identity through the analysis of their personal narratives and the observation of social practices in each context. My presentation will explore the evidence for the existence of these competing cultural narratives from four months’ work in an English secondary school, collecting personal narratives from students in a lunchtime Minecraft club and in English lessons which used Minecraft as a focus for writing.

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Title: Taking a story for a walk: a method for capturing place in research (paper07-3)

Author: Sharon Boyd

Keywords: digital, distance, storytelling, place

Abstract: Institutional support for students studying at distance has improved in recent years to the extent that the majority of systems, processes and resources can be accessed equally well on- and off-campus. While this is in line with the University of Edinburgh's strategic vision of a global university, the institutional focus is still more strongly directed towards the physical Edinburgh campus than the actual location of the student. As a way of acknowledging the physical location or place of the distance learner, this paper outlines a method of incorporating local history, myth and media into a "research story". The process of story creation may help students develop new creative skills and facilitate a sense of connection to their place. This storytelling method is being designed to accomplish four main goals of: providing a more accessible way to share research with a broad audience; embedding students’ research within their local narrative; giving geographical places a voice within research; and forefronting the diverse locations of distance students to foster institutional recognition of the “distance campus” This work forms part of a PhD being undertaken at the Moray House School of Education looking at methods for capturing a sense of place in distance education.

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Title: Digital game-based second language education: Viewing from teachers' perspectives (paper07-4)

Author: Sihan Zhou

Keywords: digital game-based learning, teachers’ attitudes, L2 curriculum

Abstract: The development of information and computer technology (ICT) in recent decades has rendered digital game-mediated teaching a natural tendency in second language (L2) education. Sykes, Reinhardt and Thorne (2010) pointed out that the interactive design of digital games could greatly enhance learner motivation. So far, learning through digital games has quite rightly focused on the learners. When the games are intended to be used as part of the L2 curriculum, though, the attitudes of the teachers can also be examined. Where this requires acceptance of technologies, it can be intimidating (Neville, 2009). As an attempt to gain insight into teachers’ views of incorporating game-based learning into L2 curriculum, a research was conducted in 6 primary schools in Harbin, China. The research is part of a larger project of Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) funded by Innovate UK. Liaised with the University of Edinburgh, the project aims to design a digital platform of animated games to enhance English teaching in Chinese primary schools. 13 year-three English teachers were interviewed about their perceptions of using game-based learning in English curriculum. Five general themes emerge from the interview data, namely, feasibility of use, ease of learning, possibility of becoming skillful, pedagogical effectiveness and productivity.

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Title: Digital multimodal assessment (paper07-5)

Author: James Lamb

Keywords: digital, assessment, multimodality, architecture, humanities

Abstract: This presentation concerns the relationship between multimodality and assessment within an increasingly digital educational landscape. Multimodality assumes that meaning is conveyed across a range of semiotic resources including, but extending beyond, language in its various forms. The growing presence of digital devices and learning spaces within higher education brings multimodality to the fore as students and their teachers are increasingly able to construct and convey knowledge in ways beyond words. This in turn has implications for those disciplines that have traditionally looked to the authority of print and the tried-and-trusted essayistic form within assessment.

Drawing on ethnographic work within an undergraduate Architecture course, I will argue that strategies for supporting multimodal assessment are already firmly established in different corners of the campus. Contrary to the tendency to conceptualise multimodal assessment as innovative or new, I will instead demonstrate how approaches that are commonly seen as examples of ‘best practice’ around assessment and feedback - opportunities for safe experimentation, dialogue around assessment, exposure to the work of peers - can support the introduction of digital assignments that ask students to convey meaning in ways beyond words.

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Title: Educational Robotics approaches developed in Brazilian educational settings and their impact on interest for technology careers and technology skills in Primary and Secondary School students (paper07-6)

Author: Eder Coelho Paula

Keywords: Educational Robotics, Qualitative Study, Career Interest towards technology

Presentation format: Oral Presentation
Abstract: The following paper reports a research study designed to investigate the impact of educational robotics (ER) approaches in technology careers and development of technology skills in Brazilian Primary and Secondary School students. Since 2007, the adoption of afterschool programs has increasingly made ER a popular activity in Primary and Secondary School curriculum. ER companies, developers and educational institutes have claimed that these learning opportunities impact positively on students’ career interest in technology and development of technology skills. To investigate this issue, a qualitative case study was developed which included diversity of data collection methods (diaries, interviews, observations and document review) and points of view (from students from Primary and Secondary Schools, teachers and parents) underpinned by the framework of the Social Cognitive Career Theory. Processes of comparison (inductive analysis, coding, refinement, development of general concepts) were used analyse data and draw conclusions about it. Implications of this study include the development of policies for the development of a national ER curricula and contributions for ER in-service teacher development.

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Oral Presentations: Language, Culture and Communication

Title: PGT international students experience: feeding-in, feeding-back and feeding-forward (paper08-1)

Author: Andrew Drybrough

Keywords: internationalisation, PGT student experience

Abstract: The focus of this joint presentation is on international students’ (linguistic and cultural) educational transition experiences through their one year PGT masters. It focuses on three key phases of their masters: feeding-in, feeding-back and feeding-out based in interviews PGT students at a research intensive Scottish university. The first part focuses on the comparison of teacher-learner relationships between UK and China and how the difference influence the students’ feed -in transition experience, and its implication on their learner identities. The second part focuses in on critical thinking and academic writing at the PGT level. It reports on research into the conceptualisation of critical thinking and academic writing, comparing the views of master’s students (UK, EU & non-EU) with that of lecturers, and the subsequent pedagogical and curriculum implications (feed-back). The third part reports on a research into international student perception of developing employability. Despite this, higher education institutions expect their graduates to develop employability-related skills to enhance their propensity for positive outcomes in entering the labour market after their study (feed-forward). Findings provide insight into international student motivation for choosing their specific programme, and their perception of the benefit of doing the master’s programme.

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Title: English discourse markers with collaborative wiki writing in 16-17 year old learners in China (paper08-2)

Author: Charlotte Kemp

Keywords: collaborative wiki writing China discourse

Abstract: This paper presents one part of our collaborative project on using wikis to develop English language writing in schools in China. English is compulsory in the Chinese education system, but wikis (online collaborative writing platforms) are hardly used. Teaching English writing in senior high schools is di􀂣cult on account of large class sizes (up to 60 students) and because individual feedback with an engaged audience is needed for writing development. In consequence, learners experience high pressure to attain high marks in English writing without necessarily having the means to achieve this. Using a mixed-methods research design, we investigate how our participants collaborate in using wikis to produce text through three writing tasks, Each task presents participants with a set of discourse markers, i.e., fronted pragmatic markers such as 'However, ...', ‘Overall, …’ and 'In my opinion, ...'. Participants are tested before and after the three tasks on their use of markers, and lastly, volunteers and teachers are interviewed. From the interviews, we find wikis are a useful tool for teaching discourse markers because (1) teachers can give formative and summative feedback quickly, and (2) students can write together so peers can also contribute and give feedback on the writing in progress.

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Title: The role of language attitudes in maintaining Daighi (paper08-3)

Author: Chia-Ying (Annie) Yang

Keywords: Language attitudes; Language maintenance; Mother Tongue Education; Teaching

Abstract: Taiwan is a multilingual country where Taiwanese Mandarin is the national language, with Taiwanese (Daighi), Hakka, and 10 Austronesian languages as generational or regional languages throughout the country. Moreover, the global Lingua Franca: English, also plays an important role in the Taiwanese linguistic repertoire, as it is one of the mainstream language subjects in the National Curriculum. Attitudes toward these languages constitute a well-defined linguistic hierarchy: English placed at the top, followed by Taiwanese Mandarin, then Daighi, Hakka and Austronesian languages. Such linguistic hierarchy has triggered a language shift: the younger generations (the under 30s) of whichever ethnic groups they belong to, have broadly switched to become monolingual in Taiwanese Mandarin. This study aims to explore the implementation of mother tongue education. I interviewed 20 teachers to investigate the pedagogy they adopt in classes. This paper, however, focuses on the attitudes to Daighi. It is encouraging as the ndings suggest that to the students, Daighi is no longer associated with negative characteristics such as backwardness, but a new negative attitude to Daighi was formed. To most students, even some teachers, Daighi is not an important language. I will discuss,

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Title: Exploring changes in the construction of identity among refugees studying ESOL in Edinburgh (paper08-4)

Author: Iain Philip

Keywords: identity, intercultural learning, refugees, narratives

Abstract: With the many challenges faced by refugees trying to build new lives, the question of identity may seem frivolous in comparison to the need to eat, secure housing, healthcare and employment. Building a new life in a new community, however, depends partly on having sufficient linguistic and intercultural skills to do so. Recent scholarship places identity at the centre of questions of how and why we learn new languages, and learn the skills to interact successfully with those from cultures different from our own. This qualitative, longitudinal, ethnographic study explores how language and intercultural learning affects construction and performance of identities by refugees. It will interview refugees in three ESOL classes in Edinburgh at the beginning and end of a six month course focusing on perceived language learning, classroom and everyday intercultural experiences and imagined future identities. It draws on poststructuralist perspective on identity, and critical approaches to cultural pedagogy, examining how participants position themselves in narratives, using thematic and Critical Discourse Analysis, to ask if and how attending and learning in these classes affects how refugees see themselves. It is hoped this will lead to better teaching, improved provision of resources, and better outcomes for refugees.

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Title: Exploring Internationalization of Higher Education: Chinese Postgraduate Students’ Needs for Oral Participation in English in the UK (paper08-5)

Author: Jing (Alice) Shan

Keywords: English education, International students experience

Abstract: The increasing complexity of internationalization of higher education calls for empirical studies on international students in order to enhance the quality of student experience and educational service. However, little research has looked into how the English language plays a role in both the academic and socio-personal aspects of the student experience, and recent studies also revealed growing diversity within the Chinese student cohort, who are traditionally viewed as a homogenous group. This study aims to explore Chinese postgraduate students’ living and learning experience in the UK by investigating their English competence in relation to their overall sojourns, with a particular focus on students’ needs for oral participation in English. Data are collected primarily from interviews with 20 Chinese PhD and masters students across 10 different schools in a British university, followed by 3 focus groups with student and university staff. This study has also been informed by on-going conversational interviewing with a large number of informants. For this conference, the presentation focuses on findings from the interviews, including what students’ oral needs are for English communication, why they have such diverse needs, how the needs interplay with their lives, and how to address their needs in the overseas study context.

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Title: A Study into the Teacher Identity Constructions of Activist EFL Teachers in Turkey (paper08-6)

Author: Ammar Tekin

Keywords: Teacher identity, EFL, Turkish context

Abstract: This study aims to explore the nature of the professional and personal identities of Turkish EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teachers who tutor for free outside school hours in various venues with different motivations. These motivations may include emancipatory aims of progressive teachers who want to make positive changes in society. Additionally, it is possible for some teachers to tutor for free in various religious organisations with or without sharing a similar perspective about life and with a religious motivation of doing good deeds for their local communities. I argue that identity constructions of English language teachers who tutor for free deserve to be acknowledged and explored deeply, regardless of their motivations. My broader research aim stems from the question right below: How does tutoring outside the official school environment contribute to Turkish EFL teachers’ professional identity constructions? This question has principally led me to my PhD research, which I have started this year. In order to seek an answer, my research method choice, which also suits my epistemological perspective, has been the narrative inquiry. Semi structured interviews with 5 to 10 participants are intended to be the primary data collection method of the study within the next two year period.

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Title: Love, Passion and Professionalism: The Early Years Lead Professional (paper08-7)

Author: Jane Malcolm

Keywords: love, professionalism, early-years, values, relationships

Abstract: Love is generally not recognised as a professional standard, however, research tells of its importance to holistic child development. Zeedyk (2016) argues that “young human brains are wired: for relationships, for love” and Bowlby (1953) describes love in infancy and childhood as being “as important for mental health as are vitamins and proteins for physical health.” My data collection methods include 2 individual interviews, a focus group, a parental questionnaire, participant reflective diaries. I have 15 participants in my study from across the sector. Results so far have identified three themes: love, individual values and professional identity. Follow up interviews are currently investigating these themes further. Murray (2013) talks of an internal view of professional self-being crucial because it is based on individual values and informs practice. She argues that this internal view is what allows the Early Years Lead Professional to practice their profession with integrity. This raises a question for me as to whether having the freedom to care with passion and love is critical to inspiring professionalism (Moyles, 2010) and whether personal values and principles are an integral part of their development of professional identities. My research boldly argues that love should be part of professional identity.

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Title: Powerful Things: the utility of objects as tools for communication and education qua health and illness. (paper08-8)

Author: Kathryn Halliday

Keywords: Non-verbal communication, Wellbeing, Objects, Psychosocial, Ethiopia

Abstract: Language is not always verbal. As part of a material culture, objects may harness an unspoken language via the meanings they are endowed with. From my perspective as a Masters student in Medical Anthropology, I examine how objects can affect and even direct people’s experiences of illness. Using mixed ethnographic methods including interview, observation, and immersion at a specialist obstetric fistula hospital in Ethiopia, I discuss how inpatients use and perceive the patchwork shawls they are each gifted upon their admission to hospital. I demonstrate how these shawls are imbued with meaning and a silent (symbolic) language that carves out channels for communication between patients and various other people (patients, staff, lay people, philanthropists). This mediates a social life of illness and demonstrates how people can use objects to speak on their behalf. Vehicles for communication, objects are potentially powerful healthcare tools for educating lay persons about illness (thereby reducing stigma), as well as relevant professionals (e.g. doctors, nurses, academics), highlighting the value in understanding the holistic nature of health and illness (thereby improving treatment). This example illuminates the potential and actual meaning of objects, revealing them to be much more than passive and inanimate actors in wellbeing.

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Title: Concussion in UK motorsport: Incidence, knowledge and priorities (poster01-1)

Author: Stephanie Adams

Keywords: concussion, motorsport, knowledge, attitudes

Abstract: Introduction: Concussions are an issue in motor sport, however, there is limited empirical data on concussion knowledge, attitudes or experiences within four-wheeled motor sports. This study aimed to describe concussion knowledge, attitudes and experiences of motor sport medical personnel and competitors, perceived priority areas regarding concussion, and current concussion-related practices amongst medical personnel. Method: 90 medical personnel (aged 23-73) and 110 competitors (aged 16-69) within the U.K., completed a self-report online survey. Participants represented both ‘amateur’ and ‘professional’ events. ‘Circuit racing’ and ‘rallying’ were the two most represented types of motor sport. Results: Almost one third of competitors reported suffering from concussion. Seventy percent of medical personnel regularly work with concussed competitors and 34% have felt pressured to clear a concussed competitor. Medical personnel (M=20.27, SD=2.14) demonstrated significantly greater knowledge than competitors (M=16.76, SD=4.04; U=2, 077.0, p<0.001) and safer attitudes (M=23.36, SD=2.08) towards concussion (competitors: M=21.61, SD=2.64; U=2,666.0, p < 0.001). ‘Education’ was endorsed as the top priority area for the sport (77% medical personnel, 85% competitors). Conclusion: There is clear evidence of concussions in motor sports, and accurate knowledge about the injury is lacking compared to other sports. There is a need to provide concussion education to competitors and medical personnel.

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Title: Universitas 21 Forum for International Networking in Education at ECER 2017, Copenhagen (poster01-10)

Authors: Xin Luo, Diana Murdoch, Aline Nardo and June Xu

Abstract: Four doctoral students were chosen by the Graduate School to represent Moray House School of Education at the Universitas 21 Forum for International Networking in Education (FINE), which was held during the European Conference on Educational Research (ECER), from August 21-15, 2017 in Copenhagen. This poster presents an overview of meetings and events which took place during the week, to highlight the work of FINE, as well as giving a flavour of the diversity and range of research taking place in Europe, together with the personal impressions of the four representatives.

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Title: Exploring outdoor learning practices in ITT – How can outdoor learning practice be influenced by an individual’s belief system? (poster01-2)

Author: Louise Hawxwell

Keywords: beliefs; outdoor learning; practices; self-study; teacher education

Abstract: Provision of outdoor learning experiences has received considerable attention within UK policy (for example, Learning Outside the Classroom Manifesto, 2006; Natural Environment Paper, 2011; Curriculum for Excellence through Outdoor Learning, 2010) over recent years due to concerns raised about the disconnectedness of children to the outdoors and nature (see for example ASE, 2011; Beames et al., 2012; England Marketing, 2009; House of Commons, 2009; House of Commons, 2009; and others). However, despite this increased focus, there are still discrepancies in provision, which may be attributable to perceptions and beliefs about outdoor learning by practitioners at different levels of the educational system. The aim of my doctoral research is to explore these beliefs and perceptions of the outdoors and outdoor learning and to consider how they impact upon an individual’s actual practice, specifically focusing on my own practice as a teacher educator working in Initial Teacher Training (ITT), drawing on my experience of working with trainee teachers in their development of their own outdoor learning practice. Using a phenomenological self-study methodology, I intend to collect a range of narrative data in order to establish how my own beliefs and values about outdoor learning have been developed and how this informs my practice in ITT. It is intended that this research will inform my own practice, and also consider how I can support trainees in developing their own outdoor learning practice in the future. As I am still at the initial stages of my study, this poster will consider my methodology and methods in more detail.

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Title: Transition from education to adult services for and with young adults with profound or severe Intellectual Disabilities: a systematic review utilising framework analysis (poster01-3)

Author: Paula Jacobs

Keywords: transition; Intellectual Disability; adult services.

Abstract: Introduction: The transition to adult services has been described as the “black hole” in the lives of individuals with Intellectual Disability and their families. In relation to those with profound or severe Intellectual Disability, the transition process poses questions about capacity and how others can make a decision in place of the individual themselves. Studies that examine transitions and involve the person with Intellectual Disability mostly include participants with mild to moderate Intellectual Disability. However, lives and pathways of those with severe or profound Intellectual Disability may differ due to higher support needs, dependency on others across the life course and difficulties to access further education or achieve employment. Method: A systematic review was conducted utilising Bronfenbrenner’s ecological framework to synthesise qualitative findings. Results: Notably two changes were made to the framework during the analytic process. Firstly, it appeared more appropriate to take the whole family as the centre of the framework and secondly the chronosystem needed to be expanded to capture the whole life course of young people and their families from the time of birth and diagnosis to the far future when parents might not be able to look after their adult children any longer.

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Title: Inclusive practice involving support provision in South Korean classrooms (poster01-4)

Author: Jiyong Kim

Keywords: inclusive education; special education; policy and practice; support provision

Abstract: In S. Korea, the integration of pupils with Special Educational Needs (SEN) into mainstream schools is matched by additional support as ‘compensation’. Likewise, support assistant provision is implemented exclusively by the special education sector and is confined to pupils with formal statements of SEN. The policy, in effect, allows the stigmatisation of assisted pupils and provides no authority to class teachers to apply assistance more flexibly in a class community. Classroom observation and interviews were conducted. A modified Wider Pedagogical Role model was used to structure data collection. Data analysis has been focused on identifying patterns of practice and how these are implemented, justified or challenged by an inclusive pedagogy which calls teachers to broaden their perspective from some or most pupils to all, so that none is marginalised and the wide diversity of individual educational needs is met. Practice is stretching the boundaries of official policy. It is common that ideological changes bring about changes in policy and practice. However, it is a demand from pupils and teachers that has naturally led, in some cases, to inclusive practice involving support provision. Inclusive pedagogy finds its justification here on practical grounds.

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Title: Mindfulness-based interventions: A springboard for organisational performance? (poster01-5)

Author: Anne Macdonald

Keywords: mindfulness in the workplace, group dynamics, agility

Abstract: With a body of evidence demonstrating a range of cognitive, emotional, behavioural and physiological benefits associated with the practice of mindfulness (Brown & Creswell, 2007), the burgeoning offering of workplace mindfulness programmes is not surprising. However, the existing evidence base for robust and relevant workplace mindfulness interventions is slim (Lomas et al., 2017). This piece of research hopes to be a cogent addition. Using a single case study approach, the thesis will explore the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions at the sporting goods retailer, Decathlon. Like most 21st century organisations, Decathlon operates in an increasingly fast-paced environment and is seeking ways to develop their talent to be agile and thrive under these conditions. A scoping study will be implemented to determine the human performance needs of the organisation and whether mindfulness-based interventions might be relevant. A systematic review of the literature will then be carried out. Likely topics may include workplace mindfulness interventions, social cognition, adaptive teams, psychological flexibility, resilience and psychological safety within teams. Consequently, several intervention studies will be implemented. The design of these studies intends to address the issues of how, why and to what extent the interventions are effective. All 21st century organisations are faced with the need to be more agile and to optimise organisational performance. The research findings could therefore have practical implications for organisations spanning different fields within the private and public sector.

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Title: Towards Paralympic classification in RaceRunning. (poster01-6)

Author: Craig Riddle

Keywords: Paralympic, Classification, RaceRunning, Impairment, Evidence-based

Abstract: Paralympic classification systems are specifically developed to minimise the impact of impairment, on the outcome of performance, encouraging fairer competition based on an athletes ability to excel in a sport by means of physical and psychological training rather than being less impaired than their opponents. Paralympic sports/events and disabled sports striving for Paralympic inclusion are required to provide valid, evidence-based measures that are ratio-scaled. Accurate measurement of impairment has been described as one of the most important aspects of the classification procedure. RaceRunning is one such sport seeking Paralympic acceptance, however, the current classification system is lacking evidence-based measures that support the use of current procedures/tests that are used to classify athletes accordingly. It is with this in mind that the current PhD aims to set out a rationale for the development of impairment measures that are in line with the requirements of Paralympic inclusion, and are specific to the eligible impairments in the sport of RaceRunning. The background of current RaceRunning impairment measures will be provided with a view to providing justification as to the requirement for adaptations closer aligned to Paralympic inclusion requirements.

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Title: A systematic review to assess the effects of yoga on physical functioning and health related quality of life in healthy older adults. (poster01-7)

Author: Divya Sivaramakrishnan

Keywords: Physical activity, yoga, older adults

Abstract: Previous studies have shown that yoga improves flexibility, balance, quality of life, and other indicators of physical and psychological health in older adults. The aim of my PhD is to develop and evaluate a yoga intervention for the older adult population in Scotland. The first step in developing a complex intervention is to identify the existing evidence base. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review to assess the effects of yoga on physical functioning and health related quality of life in healthy older adults. Methods: The following databases were accessed in May 2016: MEDLINE, PsycInfo, CINAHL Plus, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus with full text, AMED and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. Inclusion criteria: randomized controlled trials; healthy older adult participants with mean age of 60 years; studies evaluating a yoga intervention; and studies published in English. Results: After the search and screening process, 36 studies were finally included in the review. The studies measured a range of outcomes including physical functioning, psychological, cognitive and physiological parameters. The analysis to understand the effectiveness of yoga in improving physical function in older adults is currently in progress.

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Title: Is 20 plenty for health? Evaluation of the 20mph speed limit networks in Edinburgh and Belfast on a range of public health outcomes. (poster01-8)

Author: Kieran Turner

Keywords: 20mph speed limits, active travel, collisions, health inequalities

Abstract: Background: Traffic speed is an important determinant of health. 20mph speed restrictions are one policy option available to local authorities to reduce traffic speed. Little research is available on the health impacts of 20mph speed limits, including casualties, active travel and inequalities. Intervention and evaluation: Edinburgh and Belfast are implementing 20mph signage-only speed limits (2016-2018). The National Institute for Health Research is funding a research group led by the Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research and Policy (The University of Edinburgh) to evaluate these schemes from 2017-2020. Methods: The evaluation will take a quasi-experimental mixed-methods design, comprising four work packages (WPs): WP1: Firstly, routine data to assess impact on traffic speed and volume, casualties, and walking and cycling levels; secondly, surveys to assess public perceptions. WP2: Qualitative methods to assess implementation processes, and to determine how and why behaviour changes. WP3: Policy analysis to explore the transferability of such schemes to other UK settings. WP4: Economic impact evaluation of the two schemes. Implications: This evaluation will add to a knowledge base in its infancy. We hope to determine the effectiveness of 20mph limit schemes, and that the evidence will be useful in guiding policymakers implementing future schemes.

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Title: The effect of resistance training interventions on weight status in youth: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (poster01-9)

Author: Helen Weavers

Keywords: youth, resistance-training, weight-status

Abstract: The prevalence of obesity amongst youth continues to increase worldwide (De Onis et al., 2010) and there has been a rise in research into the development of suitable prevention and treatment programmes, including the effectiveness of physical activity (PA) interventions (Benson et al., 2008). While the physical activity guidelines (WHO, 2011) include ‘activity to strengthen muscle and bone’, and a potential positive impact of resistance training on weight status in youth, this has not been a focus of the PA intervention research to date. Therefore, the purpose of this review and meta-analysis was to systematically examine the effect of resistance training interventions on weight status in youth. Titles of potentially relevant articles were retrieved using a comprehensive search strategy, the titles and abstracts were screened and data was extracted. For the meta-analysis there were 32 complete sets of data (23 were RCTs, 9 were CCTs). There were 8 outcomes related to weight status identified, with effect sizes ranging from 0.043 to 0.274, indicating a small intervention effect.
The initial results of this meta-analysis suggest that a resistance training intervention may have an effect on weight status in youth but additional analysis is required to investigate this further.

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